Centre for Community Initatives
Centre for Community Initiatives (CCI) is the implementing partner of the NBS project in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. CCI is a national support NGO formed by Tanzanians with a desire of providing technical and financial assistance to communities living in informal settlements through the community groups known as Tanzania Urban Poor Federation (TUPF).
Kounkuey Design Initiative
Kounkuey Design Initiative (KDI) is the implementing partner of the NBS project in Nairobi, Kenya. KDI is a non-profit community development and design organization that partners with under-resourced communities to advance equity and activate unrealised potentials in their neighborhoods and cities.
The NBS project is funded and overseen by SwedBio. SwedBio is a Sweden based organization that functions as a knowledge interface at Stockholm Resilience Centre. SwedBio aims at enabling knowledge generation, dialogue and exchange between practitioners, policy makers and scientists for development and implementation of policies and methods at multiple scales.
Managing storm and wastewater is one of the main issues for residents of informal neighbourhoods in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam. The Kounkuey Design Initiative (KDI) based in Nairobi, Kenya and the Center for Community Initiatives (CCI) based in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania with the support of SwedBio have partnered with community-based organisations in informal settlements to co-design, implement, and test Nature-based Solutions (NbS), and their suitability to address water management challenges in their neighbourhoods. The outcome of the process used and solution tested are aiming at providing insights into the adaptability of NbS for informal settlements to achieve greater resilience.
Project Site I
St. John's Community School, Kibera, Nairobi (KE)
The first project site in Nairobi is the St. John's Community School located in Silanga Village, Kibera, Nairobi. The school has been built and is operated by the St. Community School Community Based Organisation (CBO) which has been running since 2005.
The name Silanga, the area in which St. John's is located translates to a marshy area. The area is adjacent to the Nairobi Dam and abuts the Ngong River. When it rains, the residents suffer from both drainage and riverine flooding. The flooding is caused by poor and blocked drains. The drains often get blocked by solid waste materials dumped into the drains. Additionally, surface runoff from higher grounds flows into and through the area and the school. Furthermore, latrines located around the school tend to overflow when it rains, causing human waste to flow into the school, as well as to surrounding housing structures.
Against this background, the St. John's Community School CBO submitted a proposal to KDI to address their water management challenges by finding the right NbS. After being awarded the school and surrounding communities underwent a co-design process with KDI in which NBS to the water management challenges they faced were identified.
These solutions have reduced the risk of flooding within the school compound and leave the buildings around the school compound drier and in healthier conditions.
Project Site II
Vijana Usafi na Maendelo (VUMA), Kibera, Nairobi (KE)
Vijana Usafi na Maendelo is a community-based organisation (CBO) based in Makina Village, Kibera behind Makina market. The group is a youth group that in the area operates different community amenities and provides services to the wider community for example waste collection.
Makina is located away from any watercourses that traverse Kibera. However, the area often floods when it rains heavily. Makina experiences pluvial flooding, specifically surface water flooding. When it rains the drains in the area get overwhelmed and water gradually flows into the houses and access routes. Most of the water that comes from the many roofs in the area is not harvested and instead ends up on the surface. The flooding in the area can also be attributed to poor drains that do not have the capacity to channel water off the area when it rains.
Against this background, the VUMA CBO submitted a proposal to KDI to address their water management challenges by finding the right NbS. After being awarded VUMA and residents staying in Makina underwent a co-design process with KDI in which NBS to the exiting water management challenges they faced were identified.
Today, the identified and constructed NBS in the area of influence of VUMA include a rainwater gutter and harvesting system. The NBS has reduced the risk of flooding around the house where the system was possible to be installed and residents can use the harvested water for cleaning purposes.
Project Site I
Mapinduzi Primary School, Kigogo Ward, Kinondoni Municipality, Dar es Salaam (TZ)
The Mapinduzi Primary School is the first project site in Dar es Salaam and located in the Kigogo Mbuyuni settlement which is part of the Kigogo Ward in Kinondoni Municipality, Dar es Salaam.
The school is a public school that was established in 2002. It has approx. 900 students from standard one to standard seven. The school is located in a low-lying area which has caused water to flow from the upper side of the school into the school compound resulting in soil erosion. Extensive rainfall experienced in recent years has also been demanding the school's buildings.
Against this background, the school submitted a proposal to CCI to address their water management challenges by finding the right NbS. After being awarded the Mapinduzi School underwent a co-design process with CCI in which NBS to the water management challenges they faced were identified.
The NBS have reduced the risk of flooding and further soil erosion of the school compound.
Project Site II
DEWATS in Mji mpya Settlement, Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam (TZ)
The 2nd project site in Dar es Salaam is located in the Mji Mpya settlement which is part of the Vingunguti ward in the Illala Municipality. The settlement is a highly densified and populated informal settlement, located in the central part of Ilala Municipality 5 km from the CBD of Dar es Salaam.
The project area is located in a low-lying valley where the majority of residents depend on traditional pit latrines which fill up very often as the water table in the area is high. As the area faces challenges of accessibility it is difficult for residents to empty their pits using vacuum tracks. This has led to offloading of the pits directly into the environment especially during the rainy season which puts residents at a high risk of contracting communicable diseases such as Cholera.
Against this background, the community living in the Miji Mpya settlement submitted a proposal to CCI to address their water management challenges by finding the right NbS. After being awarded the Miji Mpya community underwent a co-design process with CCI in which NBS to the water management challenges they faced were identified.
Today, the identified and constructed NBS within the settlement include a Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System (DEWATS) and a simplified sewer system. The NBS interventions have resulted in improved sanitation in the area, as well as in providing a few pilot households with biogas for cooking. The open space on top of the biogas reactor has been constructed for people to rest. The neighbourhood has become more hygienic with no more wastewater discharge into the ground. The households using the biogas are saving costs for purchasing charcoal for cooking of around 20USD per month. This DEWATS has the potential to connect further toilets in the areas (up to 45 to 50 more toilets if the simplified sewerage system is expanded).
Project Site III
Riverbank Stabilisation in Miji Mpya Settlement, Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam (TZ)
The 3rd project site in Dar es Salaam is also located in the Mji Mpya settlement which is part of the Vingunguti ward in the Illala Municipality.
Residents living along the Kidarajani river indicated that they are facing flooding and loss of land due to soil erosion during the rainy season putting risks onto their houses to collapse. For many years the area along the river has been used for dumping solid waste which has also been done to backfill it in an attempted to reduce the risk of flooding.
Against this background, the community living in the Miji Mpya settlement submitted a proposal to CCI to address their water management challenges by finding the right NBS. After being awarded the Miji Mpya community underwent a co-design process with CCI in which NBS to the water management challenges they faced were identified.
Today sandbags for riverbank stabilisation and greening of the riverbanks have been implemented. This has reduced soil erosion along the river. In addition, by clearing the river from dumped solid waste the environment has been improved. However, it needs to be recognised that waste is still being washed into the area from upstream. Accompanying interventions, such as building a bridge across the river and a community structure have improved the accessibility of the area and reduced the risk of residents building too close to the river bank.
Project Site III
Mosque Road Cluster 5 & 8, Mukuru kwa Reuben, Nairobi (KE)
The third project site in Nairobi is Cluster 5 & 8 along Mosque Road in Mukuru kwa Reuben. The clusters are two sections of the area, which were created during a planning process for the wider settlement. We have been engaging with residents and local leaders of this section of the settlement.
The neighbourhood is quite dense and structures are built up of iron sheets. In between the houses, small footpaths can be found that flood during the rainy season due to the lack of adequate drainage infrastructure and little uncovered surface. Water tends to enter houses during heavy rainfall events and water is stagnant afterward as infiltration into the ground is slow due to a high water table and the soil type.
Project Site IV
Bridge International Academy, Mukuru kwa Reuben, Nairobi (KE)
Bridge International Academy - Mukuru kwa Ruben is one of the many Bridge international academies in the country. The very first Bridge International Academy was established in 2009 in Mukuru kwa Njenga before spreading out to the rest of Nairobi and now 30 out of 47 counties in Kenya. The Bridge International Academy - Mukuru kwa Ruben is one of the 11 Bridge International Academies found in Nairobi. Others are located in other informal settlements including Dandora, Kiambiu, Sinai, Mathare, Kawangware, and Baba Dogo among others. At Bridge International Academies, pupils are required to pay $5 per month to access education. The school has 13 teachers and 290 pupils. The pupils who learn at the school are largely drawn from the Mukuru informal settlement.
Water management issues that the pupils and school as a whole face are stagnant water in the school compound after rainfall events which function as mosquito breeding grounds. In addition, the infiltration and runoff of water is slow and the school tends to flood during heavy rainfall events, making the compound very muddy and difficult to pass.
Against this background, the school and community living around the school in Mukuru kwa Reuben submitted a proposal to KDI to address their water management challenges by finding the right NbS.
Through the needs assessment process and community co-design workshops facilitated by KDI, the school, parents, and community members identified various NbS. These include french filter drains, water retention/ storage underground, permeable paving as well as planted rain gardens.
These interventions aim at reducing stagnant water in the compound as well as flooding. Further the compound will be better passable for people with disabilities.
Project Site IV
Mji Mpya, Mnyamani Ward, Dar es Salaam (TZ)
Mji Mpya is one of the settlements in Mnyamani Ward. The settlement has an estimated population of 21,039 (women 10,982 and 10,057 men); Source Mji Mpya Mtaa office. It is one of the highly densified and populated informal settlements in Dar es Salaam, located in the central urban part of Ilala Municipality. It is located 5 km from Dar es Salaam city center.
Mji Mpya mainly accommodates landlords but the majority are tenants. This is due to the close proximity of the settlement to a number of industries of which the majority could only work for their livelihood and jobs. The sanitation service is poor and pit latrine is the main option used by many residents. Water sources in the settlement are provided by the DAWASA- The Utility Water supply, private water vendors and boreholes (owned privately).
Solid waste management is also among the leading challenges experienced in the settlement. Many of the residents dispose of their solid wastes in nearby rivers and drainages.
Against this background, the interventions in Mji Mpya aim at solving the residents' wastewater issues through the construction of wastewater treatment units (Anaerobic Baffled React-(ABR), a Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System (DEWATs) and Wetlands. In addition, to address flooding Rain Water Harvesting systems (RWH) are implemented at household level.